Virtual Reality (VR)

Virtual reality is a simulated environment, usually using a VR headset. The environment can replicate our reality exactly, or conversely, it can create something you will never experience in reality. You can read a lot about virtual reality, but unless you experience it, you don’t know.

Augmented Reality (AR)

Augmented reality adds computer-generated objects to the real environment. You may have noticed the game Pokemon Go, which placed virtual Pokemons in various locations based on GPS coordinates. That’s what augmented reality is all about. You can present a product that you don’t physically have to carry and display it on a table in front of you, for example.

Mixed Reality (MR)

Mixed reality is a technology where AR and VR are fused together. The real environment and the virtual environment are mixed, allowing the user to interact comprehensively in this new environment.

Abbreviation XR

Combines all the terms together AR + VR + MR = XR

VR headset

A virtual reality headset is a device that the user puts on their head and then finds themselves in a virtual space. It works by tricking our perception. It creates the illusion of 3D by sending a camera image to the other eye that is displaced a distance from the first eye.

Render (3D visualization)

An image created by rendering a 3D scene. Render can be of varying quality, with the right settings and skill 3D graphics can be indistinguishable from a photograph.

360° Render

You know google street view. A 360° render is actually an image in which a scene is rendered from all angles of a given camera. This image can then be mapped onto a cube or sphere to create the illusion of 3D space.

3D Modeling

3D modeling is the process of creating a mathematical representation of an object in 3D. 3D modeling software is used for this purpose, (e.g. 3DS max, or Blender). The result of this process is a product called a 3D model.

Realtime 3D application

Realtime means in real time. A realtime 3D application is an application that renders (renders) in real time as you view it. You can interact with the scene, and it changes dynamically. 3d apps are being developed for various platforms, mobile devices, VR headsets, websites.

3D configurator

Is a 3d app that allows you to switch between product variants. It can be both a web app and a mobile app.

3D engine

The 3D engine is a development environment in which you can create [3D applications]{#connection-3dengine}. It contains tools that simplify the developer’s work so that he does not have to write some things from scratch. Unity3D and Unreal Engine are well known. For web environments, Three.js and Babylon.js, for example, are built on top of webgl.

3D animation

To animate a 3D model, you can imagine simple animations of the model decomposing, or even more complex character animations.

Low-poly model

A type of 3D model optimized for performance, ideal for interactive applications. Has minor details that are “made up” with various mathematical tricks to make the model look better. Low poly = Low polygon, contains fewer polygons. It is probably impossible to quantify exactly how many polygons it has. The use of low polygon models is mainly due to performance limitations on some devices.


Six degrees of freedom (DoF = degrees of freedom). For VR headsets supporting 6 Dof, means they support 3 degrees of freedom for rotation (head turning) and 3 degrees of freedom for movement in x, y, z axes. You can go forward, backward, sideways or even jump. Supporting headsets such as HTC Vive, Oculus Quest.


Three degrees of freedom (DoF = degrees of freedom). For VR headsets supporting 3 Dof, means they support 3 degrees of freedom for rotation (head turning), but your walking no longer has any effect. You need a 6-DoF VR headset for this.

High-poly model

A type of 3D model intended mainly for rendering. It is not suitable for interactive applications. It has the advantage of achieving photorealistic quality in render.


An image that is mapped (as if it were the skin of a model) to a 3D model (for example, a wood texture is mapped to a floor model).


Provides what the 3D model will look like. It can contain multiple textures, the texture can also contain non-image information such as the glossiness of the surface.

WebGL technology

Web Graphics Library is a technology for rendering 3D graphics in a browser environment.